Importance of area

A. CORE AREA

  1. REPRESENTATIVITY
  2. The habitat types protected within the Retezat National Park represent the particular range of habitats characteristic for this specific biogeographical region. Therefore, the areal-geographical analysis of the existent flora in Retezat N.P. , emphasizes the general euroasiatic (44%) background, upon which in different phyto-hystorical phases have interfered the following elemeim56l.jpg (27086 bytes)nts: circumpolar (13%), alpine (9%), european (12%), southern (6%), endemics (7.2%), policore (3.4%) and adventive (1.4%). This analysis make a clear conformation, from the phyto-geographical point of view, of the Retezat N.P. belonging to the euro-siberian region, the east-carpathian central-European sub-region, the Middle Carpathians unit.

    The variate range of elements existent here, as a consequence of the different climatic influences and of the natural corridors which facilitated during the time their dispersal, have given a particular significance of the area within the origin region, in terms of important changes in structure and associated species. The vegetation is very rich because of its location between different vegetational provinces ( central European, Iliric, Balkan, Charpathian and Moesian ) and there are some endemic species.

  3. NATURAL HABITATS
  4. Generally, Retezat national Park have not been exposed to human intervention, preserving its natural habitats, due to the fact that up to 1935 a big part of area was a royal territory for hunting and in 1935 was the first legally established national park in Romania. Its strictly protected area “Gemenele” shelters a natural prymary forest, totally unaffected, one of the last remained.

  5. BIODIVERSITY im7l.jpg (21367 bytes)

The biodiversity of Retezat N.P. approach within this project covers three levels of biodiverity, namely ecosystems diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity.

Main ecosystems within national park are broad-leaved, coniferous and mixed forests, alpine and subalpine pastures with dwarf-pine, aquatic ecosystems - more then 80 glaciar lakes, streams, springs, rivers, waterfalls, peatbogs, and also caves, gorges…. (for more details see Habitat Types within Retezat N.P. and annex 2 - Vegetation of Retezat)

           SPECIES DIVERSITY:

Flora - The general flora background is eurasiatic (44%) and from all the species identified in the area 5.2% are endemic. Thirty nine species are endemic to Retezat alone and one (Draba dorneri) covers just 400 sq.m. of earth! In the studies made on Retezat Mountain flora were identified 2 new for science taxons belonging to Briophyta.

Fauna

Invertebrates:
Gasteropoda 9 fam. with 29 sp.
Tardigrada 3 fam. with 59 sp.
Crustacea - Phyllopoda - 1 sp.
                - Cladocera - 16 sp.
                - Copepoda -10 sp.
                - Decapoda - 6 sp.
Arachnida - Aranea - 48 sp.
                - Opiliones - 9 sp.
                - Ascarina - 2 sp.
 
Insecta - Orthoptera - 29 sp.
                - Diptera - 111 sp.
                - Thysanoptera - 1 sp.
                - Odonata - 1 sp.
                - Ephermeroptera - 1 sp
                - Trichoptera - 39 sp.
                - Lepidoptera - 65 sp.
                - Coleoptera - 52 sp.
                - Hymenoptera - 86 sp.
Vertebrates:
- Pisces - 12 sp.
- Amphibia - 5 sp.
- Reptilia - 8 sp.
- Aves - 82 sp.
- Mammalia - 26 sp.

marmote.jpg (24645 bytes)Among the game species, the following can be found in the area: chamois (450), bear (35), stag (30), wolf (15), marmotte (400 - 500), lynx (4), wild cat (15), mountain cock (40), royal eagle (2-3). In brackets is the estimated the minimum population size in the area.

GENETIC DIVERSITY:

From flora-genetic point of view Retezat N.P. represent a genetical centre for Poa and Hieracium, and many specifics taxons for Romanian flora have here the initial habitat, as: Barbarea lepuznica, Pedicularis baumgartenii, Centaurea Retezatensis, Oxytropis jacquinii ssp. Retezatensis, Hypochoeris maculata var. carpatica, Festuca rupicola var. retezatensis and others.

The most representative population of marmots in Romania exists in Retezat N.P., as a consequence of reintroduction project and good coditions found here. The marmot population in Retezat is the source for repopulation of others alpine areas of Romania ( eg. Success examples in Rodna National Park and Fagaras Mountain ).

  1. ENDEMICS AND THREATENED SPECIES

In Retezat N.P. were identified 41 endemic plants ( see annex 1 List of endemic plants ) and 24 species on the list of European threatened vertebrates (as follow:

PISCES
NEOPTERYGII
  Isospondily
    Salmonidae
      - Salmo truta fario
    Thymallidae
      - Thymallus thymallus
  Ostariophysi
    Cyprinidae
      - Alburnoides bipunctatus
 
REPTILIA
Serpentes
   Colubridae
     - Coronella austriaca
   Viperidae
     - Vipera berus
AVES
  Falconiformes
    Accipitridae
      - Aquila pomarina
      - Aquila crysaethos
    Falconidae
      - Falco peregrinus
  Galliformes
    Tetraonidae
      - Tetrao urogallus
  Strigiformes
    Strigidae
      - Bubo bubo
      - Glaucidium passerinum
      - Aegolius funereus
  Piciformes
    Picidae
     - Picus canus
     - Dendrocopus major
     - Dendrocopus leucotos
     - Dryocopus martius
     - Picoides tridactylus
  Passeriformes
    Muscicapidae
     - Ficedula parva
     - Ficedula albicolis
MAMMALIA
  Carnivora
    Canidae
      - Canis lupus lupus
    Ursidae
      - Ursus arctos arctos
    Felidae
      - Felis sylvestris sylvestris
      - Lynx lynx
  Artyodactyla
    Bovidae
      - Rupicapra rupicapra
         carpatica

5. Finally, account should be taken of the significance of Retezat N.P. for migratory species, which is a breeding place for 60 birds species, 11 possibly breedind and 11 passage migrants or vagrant ones.


  1. BUFFER AREA

The most important threats to the core area are overgrazing and tourism, therefore the development of a buffer policy to reduce the impact of these activities and also to promote a sustainable rural development is esential.

The buffer area of Retezat N.P. is not affected now by industry ( no pollutant objective exists over 30 km distance ), the local community having involved mainly in traditional agriculture and in catle and sheep grazing.


  1. CORRIDORS

The Retezat N.P. plays an important role for implementation of EECONET concept, also in terms of the ecological corridors existence, to facilitate species migration and dispersal.A main and very old transhumance route, cross the park in the Southern part, linking this area with Domogled - Cerna Valley National Park and then with Iron Gates N.P. ( future transboundary N.P. with Derdapa N.P. in former Yugoslavia ).

Due to the fact that Retezat N.P. represent a meeting point of different climatic influences, here we can find vipera ammodytes - Mediterranean species, probably at the northern limits of its areal, with the center in Cerna Valley.

Large mammals as wolf and lynx, which require a vast territory find in Retezat N.P. and outside area enough space for movement. The lack of large transport and buildings infrastructures, leads to the absence of main barriers between subpopulations of species and also between a populated habitat and unpopulated one. The only existent barrier, especially for the fish fauna is represented by the dam on Raul Mare River.